Carsten Burkhardt's Web Project Paeonia - The Peony Library

ano_finnland7 index 0602 boreas2

Paeonia-Literatur L

La Cour LF, 1952, Chromosome Counts of Species and Varieties of Garden Plants,Ann Rept Johns Innes Hort Inst 42: 47-50

Lamarck, J.B. de & Candolle, A.P. de (1805) Flore Française, Paeonia 3. éd. tome 4,2. partie (5. vol.): 919, Paris

Lamarck, J.B. de & Candolle, A.P. de (1815) Flore Française, Paeonia 3.éd. tome 5 (6.vol.) : 643-644, Paris
Lancaster, R. 1983, Plant Awards. The Garden 108 (2): 66-68 P. emodi Col. illus.
Lang H Y, Clardy J, McCabe T++, 1984, A new monoterpene glycoside of Paeonia lactiflora, Planta Medica vol 50:6 pp 501-504
Lang HY 1983, [Chemical constituents of Paeonia lactiflora Pall] ; Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao, 1983 Jul
Langhammer, James K. (1997) ‘Oriental Gold’ May be an ancient Peony!. American Peony Society Bulletin 304, December 1997 p. 8-10

Langhammer, James K. (2003) Itoh’s Four Original Intersectional Peonies and Possible Methods to Differentiate Them, published on with kind permission of the author, translation into german is in progress

LangletOFI,1928/192/?, Beiträge zur Zytologie der Ranunculazeen,Svensk Bot Tidskr, vol 21, pp 1-17
Laning, Chris (1995) Diploid Crosses . pp. 91-92 in: Kessenich, Greta (Ed.) Handbook of the Peony 7th Edition 1995. American Peony Society, 250 Interlachen Road, Hopkins, MN 55343
Laning, Chris (1995) The Peony has Advanced with Continued Crosses . p. 92 in: Kessenich, Greta (Ed.) Handbook of the Peony 7th Edition 1995. American Peony Society, 250 Interlachen Road, Hopkins, MN 55343
Laning, Chris (2000) Ludlowii 1998 and 1999 . American Peony Society Bulletin 313, March 2000 p. 36
LauenerLA,1989,The Mudan and the Scottish connection,Sine (Bulletin of the Scotland-China Association): 7-9

Lauremberg, P. 1631 Horticultura, Libris II. comprehensa; huic nostro coelo & solo accommodata... in qua quicquid ad hortum proficue colendum, et eleganter instruendum facit, explicatur. Frankfurt, Matthias Merian, (with:) Apparatus Plantarum primus: tributus in duos libros. I.De plantis bulbosis. II. De plantis tuberosis... Frankfurt, Matthias Merian, (1632). 2 vols in one. 4to (205 x 155mm). pp. 196, Paeonia ?

LawrenkoAN, SerditovNP,1982 Karyosystematische Untersuchungen ... Paeoniaceae im Nord-Osten des europäischen Teiles der UdSSR
LavrenkoAN, SerditovNP,1985,Kariosistematicheskoe issledovanie predstavitelej semejstv Ranunculaceae i Paeoniaceae na severo-vostoke evropejskoj chasti S.S.S.R  ,Botanitcheskij Zhurnal 70 (10):1346-1354 Rus.[Karyosystematic Study of the representatives of the families Ranunculaceae & Paeoniaceae in the North East of the European Part of the USSR] (etude caryosystématique des représentants des familles Ranunculaceae et Paeoniaceae de la partie européenne de l'URSS)
LavrenkoAN, SerditovNP,1986, Tchisla kromosom nekotorikh predstavitelej semejstv Ranunculaceae, Paeoniaceae, Boraginaceae s severa evropejskoj tchasti S.S.S.R. i Urala  ,Botanitcheskij Zhurnal 71(12):1685-1695 (nombre chromosomique des représentants des famillesRanunculaceae, Paeoniaceae, Boroginaceae du nord de la partie européenne de l'URSS et l'Oural), [Chromosome Numbers in some representatives of the families Ranunculaceae, Paeoniaceae and Boraginaceae from the north of the European Part of the USSR & the Urals]
Lawrence Sir W,1929, P.willmottiana, Garden Ill, vol51,p818
Lazara e Ibiza,1907, Comp Flora Espan. 2, 356-357
LebretonP,1985,'Les Pivoines dans la nature et dans les jardins',Pl.Montagne 9 (136) : 229-237 lllus, maps
Clusius—Carolus Clusius or Charles de I'Escluse, 1526-1609, Holland

L'Ecluse, Charles de, lat. Carolus Clusius,1583,Rariorum aliquot Stirpium per Pannoniam, Austriam, et vicinas quasdam Provincias observatarum Historia, 401-402.,Antwerp

L'Ecluse, Charles de, lat. Carolus Clusius, 1601,Rariorum Plantarum Historia, 279-281.Antwerpiae (Anvers) ex officina Plantiniana apud loannem Moretum

L'Ecluse, Charles de, lat. Carolus Clusius, 1605, Exoticorum libri decem, quibus animalium, plantarum, aromatum aliorumque peregrinorum fructuum historiae describuntur, Leiden


LedebourCF, 1830, Flora Altaica, 2, 276-279. „Paeonia“ by Carl Anton Meyer.Berlin
LedebourCF,1842- 1853, Flora Ross Flora Rossica sive enumeratio plantarum in totius imperii Rossici provinciis Europaeis, Asiaticis et Americanis hucusque observatarum. Stuttgartiae, E. Schweizerbart,. Paeonia 1, 73-74

LedyardG, 1961,'Notice on the tree peonies of Loyang (Luoyang Mu-Tan Chi) by Ouyang Hsiu (1007-72) with introduction & annotations,Unpublished Ms [referred to in Needhamn (1986)

Leem K, Kim H, Boo Y, Lee HS, Kim JS, Yoo YC, Ahn HJ, Park HJ, Seo JC, Kim HK, Jin SY, Park HK, Chung JH, Cho JJ. Effects of Paeonia lactiflora root extracts on the secretions of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and -3 in human nasal fibroblasts. Phytother Res. 2004 Mar;18(3):241-3. [Abstract: In the field of Oriental medicine, the root of Paeonia lactiflora (Paeoniae Radix) has been prescribed usually to treat the common cold, and it was thought to alleviate upper respiratory infection or nasal inflammation. Monocyte chemotactic proteins (MCP)-1 and MCP-3 are known as the most potent chemokines to mediate allergic inflammation. The object of the study was to investigate the effect of Paeoniae Radix on the release of the chemokines such as MCP-1 and MCP-3. To detect the secretion of MCPs, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed for human nasal mucosal fibroblasts after stimulation with several cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). The secretion of MCP-1 was increased after stimulation with TNF-alpha or IL-1beta treatment. Co-treatment of TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma, or IL-1beta and IFN-gamma increased the secretion of MCP-1 and MCP-3. Paeoniae Radix was tested with inflammatory cytokines, and the results showed that the Paeoniae Radix significantly decreased the secretion of MCP-1 and MCP-3. In our study, Paeoniae Radix may play an important role in nasal inflammation with a modulation of MCP-1 and MCP-3. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.] College of Oriental Medicine, Semyung University, Chungbuk 390-711, South Korea. Click here to read

Lee SE, Hwang HJ, Ha JS, Jeong HS, Kim JH. Screening of medicinal plant extracts for antioxidant activity. Life Sci. 2003 May 30;73(2):167-79. [Abstract: The methanol extracts of nine medicinal plants traditionally used in Chinese medicine were screened for antioxidant activity versus resveratrol, which has been shown to protect cells from oxidative damage [Toxicol. Lett. 102 (1998) 5]. Most of the plant extracts used in this study inhibited the H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis of Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79-4) cells. The extracts of Areca catechu var. dulcissima, Paeonia suffruticosa, Alpinia officinarum, Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Cinnamomun cassia strongly enhanced viability against H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative damage in V79-4 cells. Relatively high levels of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity were detected in extracts of Areca catechu var. dulcissima, Paeonia suffruticosa and Cinnamomun cassia (IC(50) < 6.0 microg/ml). The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) were dose-dependently enhanced in V79-4 cells treated with most of the plant extracts. The extracts of Areca catechu var. dulcissima showed higher antioxidant activity than resveratrol in all experiments. These results suggest that the plant extracts prevent oxidative damage in normal cells probably because of their antioxidant characteristics.] Department of Biochemistry, College of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, 1 Hoegi-Dong, Dongdaemoon-Ku, Seoul 130-701, South Korea. Click here to read

Lee SJ, Lee HM, Ji ST, Lee SR, Mar W, Gho YS. 1,2,3,4,6-Penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose blocks endothelial cell growth and tube formation through inhibition of VEGF binding to VEGF receptor. Cancer Lett. 2004 May 10;208(1):89-94. [Abstract:Tumor angiogenesis is a critical step for the growth and metastasis of solid tumors. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is the most important angiogenic molecule associated with tumor-induced neovascularization. VEGF exerts its activity through binding to its receptor tyrosine kinase, KDR/Flk-1, expressed on the surface of endothelial cells. From the screening of medicinal plants, we have identified 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-d-glucose (PGG) from the roots of Paeonia lactiflora that inhibited the binding of VEGF to KDR/Flk-1. PGG efficiently blocked VEGF-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell proliferation and the growth of immortalized human microvascular endothelial cells, but did not affect the growth of HT1080 human fibrosarcoma and DU-145 human prostate carcinoma cells. PGG also blocked VEGF-induced capillary-like tube formation of endothelial cell on Matrigel. Our results suggest that PGG could be a candidate for developing anti-angiogenic agent.] Natural Products Research Institute, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-460, South Korea. Click here to read

LeeYN ,1967,Chromosome Counts of Flowering Plants in Korea,Journ Korea Res Inst Ewha Women’s Univ 11: 455-478

Le Grand—Antoine Le Grand, 1839-1905, France
Le Grand A, 1899, Paeonia Russi Biv. var. Reverchoni.",Bull Assoc Franf. Bot. 2, xv, 62.
Lemaire,1869, III. Hort. 14, t. 579 .
Lemaire,1848, Flora Serres, 4, sub. t. 308 .
Lemoine, 1906, P.delavayi var lutea & f superba,Rev Hort p14
Lemoine,1903, P.lutea,Rev Hort Belge, XXIX 177, fig 26
Lemoine, 1911, Rev Hort 431, figs. 184, 185
LemoineV, 1881, New Herbaceous Peonies, Garden vol19,p14
Lepper, L. (1968) Über Paradichlorbenzol als Vorbehandlungsmittel in der Chromosomentechnik, Wissenschafiliche Zeitschrift der Friedrich-Schiller Universität, Jena 17 (3) : 378
Lepper, L. 1982 , Cytologische Untersuchungen in Angiospermen. Wissenschafliche Zeitschrift der Friedrich-Schiller Universität, Jena, Mat. Naturwiss. Beitr. Phytotax. 31 (2): 251-258 Ge (Rus. En. Sp.) Illus. chrom.nos. Paeonia mairei.

Leskow, Flora Malozem tundry, Paeonia anomala p.64; (cit. nach Tolm.)

Letoumeux,1871, Etude Bot. Kabylie Jurjura, 25

Léveillé—Auguste Albert Hector Léveillé, 1863- 1918, France

Léveillé, A.A. H., (1915) Flora missionnaria asiatica [Paeonia mairei] Bulletin de Géographie Botanique, Le Mans 25 : 42-43

Liang QD, Li WH, Wang HX, Wang SQ. [Saccharide analysis of si-wu-tang by automated multiple development and off-line coupling thin layer chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry techniques] [Article in Chinese] Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2003 Jul;28(7):632-5.[OBJECTIVE: To make qualitative analysis on saccharide spots in thin layer chromatography (TLC) chromatogram of SI-WU-TANG extract C, which possesses blood-enrichment activity. METHOD: TLC chromatogram of SI-WU-TANG extract C was obtained by using Automated Multiple Development (AMD) method. 4 major spots in the chromatogram were analyzed by off-line coupling TLC electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) technique. Moreover, composition of monosaccharides in the fraction was analyzed by AMD technique. RESULT: Main constituents of substances from the 4 spots were monosaccharide, disaccharide, trisaccharide and tetrasaccharide respectively. Monosaccharide was mainly composed of fructose and glucose. CONCLUSION: Off-line coupling TLC ESI-MS can simply and rapidly provide qualitative examination of saccharide spots in TLC chromatogram of Traditional Chinese Medicine. AMD method can make good separation of 8 frequently-observed monosaccharides in a regular 10 cm silica gel plate, the process of which was automated, AMD and off-line coupling TLC ESI-MS techniques show good value in saccharides analysis.] Institue of Radiation Medicine, Acadamy of Military Medical Sciences, Beijing 100850, China.

Liang Zu Hong - Luoyang Peony - 1988 · 94 pages · 172 color photographs of chinese tree peonies (chinese)

Li Chunyue, 2002, Chinese modern peony scholarly research (Chinese peony scholarly research network,, online available under:, english translation under:

Lienau, Clarence O. (1990) The Secret of good Peonies - Soil. pp. 15 in: Kessenich, Greta M (Ed.) The American Hybrid Peony , American Peony Society , 250 Interlachen Road, Hopkins, MN 55343, 1990
LienauCO,1977,Cut Peonies,American Peony Society 75 Years pp176-176
LienauCO,1979,How to start a New Peony Planting,American Peony Society 75 Years pp185-186
LienauCO,1979,Potting for Spring Sales,American Peony Society 75 Years pp74-74
LienauCO,1979,The Secret of Good Peonies - Soil,American Peony Society 75 Years pp73-74

Li G, Seo CS, Lee KS, Kim HJ, Chang HW, Jung JS, Song DK, Son JK. Protective constituents against sepsis in mice from the root cortex of Paeonia suffruticosa. Arch Pharm Res. 2004 Nov;27(11):1123-6. [Abstract: The bioassay-guided fractionation of protective agents against sepsis-induced lethality from the root cortex of Paeonia suffruticosa ANDREWS (Ranunculaceae) led to the isolation of eight known compounds: paeonol (1), 2,5-dihydroxy-4-methoxyacetophenone (2), acetovanillone (3), paeonoside (4), paeoniflorin (5), oxypaeoniflorin (6), apiopaeonoside (7), and methyl 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzoate (8). Among them, 3 showed the highest survival rate (100% with a dose of 30 mg/kg versus 17% for the control experiment) and reduced alanine aminotransferase level to be a half of the control value on the sepsis model induced by lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine.] College of Pharmacy, Yanbian University, Yanji 133000, P R China.

Lignamine, J.P. de 1481 Herbarium Apulei Platonici, Rome

Li J, Wu BY, Jiang YR. [Study on interaction of Radix Paeoniae 801 and endothelin-1 by using a piezoelectric quartz crystal biosensor] [Article in Chinese] Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2004 Aug;24(8):714-6. [Abstract: To explore the possible target and molecular mechanism of Radix Paeoniae 801 (RP801), an effective ingredient extracted from Radix Paeoniae, the Chinese herbal medicine for activating blood circulation to remove blood stasis, using experimental in vitro method by directly detecting the interaction between RP801 and endothelin-1 (ET-1). METHODS: Piezoelectric quartz crystal biosensor, namely, the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) was used to detect the specific combining between RP801 and ET-1 by binding avidin to the pre-activated Au surface of electrode of QCM, followed by immobilizing biotinylated ET-1 to it, and adding RP801, then the binding curve was recorded. PBS washing was applied at the end of every steps of combining reaction for dissociate the non-specific absorption. RESULTS: Specific combining of RP801 and ET-1 was found. CONCLUSION: ET-1 could possibly be one of the acting targets of RP801 in the body, that is, RP801 could combine with ET-1 to impede the binding of ET-1 with its receptor, so as to counteract the action of ET-1, dilate blood vessels and inhibit platelet aggregation.] Life-Science College, Nankai University, Tianjin.

Li Jiajue (ed) (1989) Linxia mudan. Beijing Science and Technology Press, Beijing, China, pp 3–4

Li Jiajue (1989) History of cultivation (in Chinese). In: Li Jiajue (ed) Linxia mudan. Beijing Science and Technology Press, Beijing, China, pp 3–4

Li Jiajue, Zhao, Q. & Cheng, Fangyun 1995. Classification study on the Chinese Moutan and Moutan breeding; Acta Horticulturae, Issue 404: July 1995, pp. 118 - 122.

Li Jiajue, Li QD (1997) Wild resources and ecological environment and their distribution (in Chinese). In: Wang LY (ed) Pictorial record of Chinese tree peony varieties. China Forestry Press, Beijing, pp 2–7

Li Jiajue, 1998, Studies on the origin of Chinese Mudan (tree peony). original title: Zhongguo Mudan qiyuan de yanjiu. Journal-of-Beijing-Forestry-University (China). Beijing Linye Daxue Xuebao (China). (Mar 1998). v. 20(2) p. 22-26.. (Chinese)

Li Jiajue, Cheng D-Z, Yu L, He L-X, Chen X-L. 1998. A study on taxonomic position of Paeonia ludlowii. Bulletin of Botanical Research (Harbin) 18:152-155 [Abstract: The densityc. component in the interferogram of conventional FTIR spectroscopy is expressed by ¥ò0 B(s)ds. However, in time-resolved FTIR spectroscopy, the densityc. component Idc(t) also depends upon t, the time which IR signal appears. Idc(t) is then represented by ¥ò0 B(s,t)ds, called as constant-in-time DC component by us. Ide(t) converts to a strong peak at 0 cm-1 in the IR spectrum. We call it as constant-in-time zero frequency signal Br(0). Either Idc or Bt(0) can be used to monitor a variety of exptl. conditions, such as the variation of gas pressure, laser radiation intensity, the carbon deposition on the optics, etc. They can also be applied to measure the instrumental response time and the band pass frequency.] abstract article online available.
Li Jiajue, 1999, Zhonguo mudan Yu Shaoyao. China Forestry Publishing house, 7 , Liuhai Hutong, West City District, Beijin 10009?) ISBN 7-5058-2107-8/S
Li Jiajue (1999) Distribution and taxonomy in Paeonia spp. (in Chinese). In: Li Jiajue (ed) Zhonguo mudan Yu Shaoyao. [Chinese tree peony and herbaceous peonies]. China Forestry Press, Beijing, pp 25–47
Li Jiajue (Ed.) 2005, Zhongguo Mudan PinZhong Tuzhi  [Xibei, Xinan,  Jiangnan]  Jingwen ban,  (Chinese Tree Peony Cultivar Groups [Northwest, Southwest, Southern Yangtse] (English Edition)  China Forestry Publishing House, 2005. ISBN 7503840404, siehe (link) content of the book see here.
Li M. X. and Zhang, X. F. 1982, Cytogenetic study on triploid Paeonia suffruticosa [in Chinese]; in Yichuan, 4(5): Sept. 1982, pp. 19 - 21, 27.translated from the Chinese by Xinxin, english version corrected by Elizabeth Babb

Lin, Hang-Ching, Hsiou-Yu Ding & Yang-Chang Wu. TWO NOVEL COMPOUNDS FROM PAEONIA SUFFRUTICOSA. Journal of Natural Products. 61(3):343-346, 1998

Lin, W. C., Chung, W. C., Sheu, S. J., 1996, HPLC Separation of the Major Constituents in Paeoniae Radix, J. High Res. Chromatogr., Accepted.

Lindley, John Lindley, 1799-1865. England

Lindley, J, 1819, Botanical Register Paeonia p 379
Lindley, J. 1824, Paeonia cretica, Cretian Paeony, Botanical Register, 10 : Paeonia t. 819 (2 pages + planche couleur)
Lindley, J, 1835, Botanical Register Paeonia p1678
Lindley, J, 1839, [Paeonia Brownii Section Onaepia],Botanical Register 25, Paeonia t. 30.*
Lindley, J, 1846, Paeonia Wittmanniana, the yellow Paeony. Edwards 's Botanical Register, 32 : t. 9 (2 pages + planche couleur)
Lindley, J, 1887, Journ Hort., Ser. 3, 15, 517, c. fig. ,
Lindley, J, 1889, Journ Hort., Ser. 3, 18. 464, c. fig., p. 463 ;
Lindley, J, 1915, Garden vol79, 351, c. fig.
Lin HC; 1999, Aggregation inhibitory activity of minor acetophenones from Paeonia species. Planta Med, 1999 Oct

Link, Heinrich Friedrich 1767-1851

Link, H.F. & Otto, F. Abbildung auserlesener Gewächse des Königlichen Botanischen Gartens zu Berlin nebst Beschreibungen und Anleitung Sie zu ziehen/ Icones Plantarum selectarum Horti Regii Botanici Berlinensis cum descriptionibus et colendi ratione. Berlin, (Reimer), 1820-1822.

Link, H.F. & Otto, F. Abbildungen neuer und seltener Gewächse des Königlichen Botanischen Gartens zu Berlin nebst Beschreibungen und Abbildung Sie zu ziehen. Berlin, L. Oehmigke, 1828-1829

Linnaeus , Carolus Linnaeus (Carl von Linné) 1707-1778, Sweden

Linnaeus, Carolus, 1736 Bibliotheca Botanica recenses libros plus mille de plantis huc usque editos, secundum systema auctorum naturale. Amsterdam, S. Schouten,.

Linnaeus, Carolus, 1737 Paeonia in: Hortus Cliffortianus plantas exhibens in Hortis tam vivis quam siccis, Hartecampi in Hollandia, coluit ... Georgius Clifford ... Reductis varietatibus ad species, speciebus ad genera, generibus ad classes, adjectis locis plantarum natalibus differentiisque specierum ... Paeonia 211-212 Amsterdam.

Linnaeus, Carolus, 1737,(transl. 1938). Critica botanica, translated by Sir Arthur Hort, n sect. 216, 151 sect. 272. London. Roy Society Publication, 124

Linnaeus, Carolus, 1748 Paeonia in: Hortus Upsaliensis, exhibens plantas exoticas, Horto Upsaliensis Academiae a sese illatas, ab anno 1742, in annum 1748, additis differentiis, synonymis, habitationibus, hospitiis, rariorumque descriptionibus, in gratiam studiosae juventutis. Vol. I: Paeonia 149. Stockholmiae, L. Salvii.

Linnaeus, Carolus, 1750 Plantae Rariores Camschatcenses. Praeside ... Carolo Linnaeo ... modeste submitet Jonas P. Halenius. Upsaliae

Linnaeus, Carolus, 1753, Species Plantarum, 1re éd., Paeonia 1 : 530, Holmiae, Impensis Laurentii Salvii

Linnaeus, Carolus, 1755 Flora Svecica, exhibens plantas per regnum Svecicae crescentes, systematice cum differentiis specierum, synonymis autorum, nominibus incolarum, solo locorum, usu oeconomorum, officinalibus pharmacopaeorum. Editio secunda aucta et emendata. Stockholmiae, L. Salvii.

Linnaeus, Carolus, 1759, Systema Naturae Edition 10, 2, 1079 ,Holmiae, Impensis Laurentii Salvii

Linnaeus, Carolus, 1762, Species Plantarum Edition 2, Paeonia 1, 747-748, Holmiae, Impensis Laurentii Salvii

Linnaeus, Carolus, 1767, PI.Rar. Hort. Upsal. fasc. i, p. 9, t. 5

Linnaeus, Carolus, 1770 Mantissa Plantarum. Generum editionis VI et Specierum editionis II. (Holmiae, L. Salvin, 1767). 8vo. pp. 142, (2, index) (bound up with:) IDEM. Systema Naturae, per Regna tria Naturae, ... Tomus III: (Regnum Lapidum: Petrae - Minerae - Fossilia). Vindobonae, I. Thomae,.
Linnaeus, Carolus, 1771, Mantissa Plantarum altera generum editionis VI. & specierum editionis II. Holmiae,Impensis Laurentii Salvii, Paeonia 247:
Linnaeus, Carolus, Vollständiges Pflanzensystem nach der dreyzehnten lateinischen Ausgabe und nach Anleitung des höllandischen Houttuynischen Werks. Nürnberg, G.N. Raspe, 1777-1788.
Linnaeus, Carolus, 1781 Supplementum Plantarum systematis vegetabilium, editionis decimae tertiae (1774), Generum Plantarum editionis sextae (1764), et Specierum Plantarum editionis secundae (1762-1763). Brunsvigae, Orphanotrophei,.
Linnaeus, Carolus, 1784, Systema Vegetabilis Ed. 14, Paeonia p. 502
Linnaeus, Carolus, 1800, Species PIantarum Edition? , Paeonia 2, p1221
Linnaeus, Carolus, Systema Vegetabilium. Editio decima sexta. Curante C. Sprengel. Gottingae, sumtibus Librariae Dieterichianae, 1825-1828. 5 volumes.
Linnemann W,1996,Preisliste

Linné see: Linnaeus

Lin Z. H. (1992) Paeonia: In: Wang J. X. (ed.) Flora of Zhejiang, 2: 56. Zhejiang Sci. Techn. Publishing House, Hangzhou.

Lipsky — Vladimir Ippolitovich Lipsky, 1863-1937, Russland
Lipsky,1889-92,tenuifolia var.hybrida,Flora Ciscauc. 235 –236
Lipsky,1899,Fl. Cauc.,TrudiTbilisi Bot Sada, 4, 213 ;

Li Q B, Zhou Z Q, Zhao X, Pan K Y & Hong D Y, 2004: Interspecific relationships among the wild species of Paeonia sect. Moutan DC. based on DNA sequences of Adh gene family. Acta Hort. Sin. 31(5): 627—632. [Abstract: A portion (the big intron between exon 5 and 6, ca. 2 kb) of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) gene of 15 wild tree peony accessions collected from 15 populations, which represent all the eight wild species in sect. Moutan, was analyzed using PCR-RFLP technique, and this portion of nine accessions, which represent also all the eight wild species, was sequenced for a better understanding of the interspecific relationships in this section. A reduced-median (RM) network of sect. Moutan was constructed with Network 3.0 computer program using the PCR-RFLP data obtained from the digestion experiments of 12 selected restriction enzymes. Both maximum parsimony (MP) and neighbor-joining (NJ) trees of sect. Moutan were constructed with PAUP*4.0 program using the sequences newly obtained in this study and from GenBank. As a result, a well resolved and highly supported gene tree of sect. Moutan (by bootstrap values) was obtained. The tree is basically in accordance with that constructed from morphological data. The phylogenetic relationships among species in sect. Moutan are discussed in detail.]

Li S. X. (1995) Paeoniaceae. In: Fu P. Y. (ed.) Clavis Plant. China Bor.-Orient. 2nd. edn. Science Press, Beijing, p.220.

Little, Harry F. (1925) Praparation for storing of Show Peonies. American Peony Society Bulletin 23, February 1925, reprinted 1990 on pp. 18-22 in: Kessenich, Greta M (Ed.) The American Hybrid Peony , American Peony Society , 250 Interlachen Road, Hopkins, MN 55343, 1990
Liu, S.O. & al. (1975) Flora Plantarum Herbacearum Chinae Boreali-Orientalis, vol. 3 : 88-91, Academia Sinica, Beijing

Liu D; 1989, Mutagenicity screening of water extracts from 102 kinds of crude drugs in chinese medicine ENVIRON MOL MUTAGEN 14(SUPPL 15):116,1989) (0; , )

Liu J, 1983 [Effect of Paeonia obovata 801 on metabolism of thromboxane B2 and arachidonic acid and on platelet aggregation in patients with coronary heart disease and cerebral thrombosis] Chung Hua I Hsueh Tsa Chih, 1983 Aug

Liu S, WangL, WuT, QinK ,1987,Mu dan, Zhong guo jian zhu gong ye,Press, Beijing 106 pp
Liu ZQ, Zhou H, Liu L, Jiang ZH, Wong YF, Xie Y, Cai X, Xu HX, Chan K. Influence of co-administrated sinomenine on pharmacokinetic fate of paeoniflorin in unrestrained conscious rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 May 13;99(1):61-7. [Abstract: Paeonia lactiflora Pall. (Ranunculaceae) root and Sinomenium acutum Rehder and Wilson (Menispermaceae) stem are two herbs widely used in Chinese medicine to treat rheumatoid arthritis. While, in theory, either herb could be used alone, in practice, Chinese medicine practitioners prescribe them together. Studies on pharmacokinetic interaction between the active constituents of these two herbs (paeoniflorin and sinomenine, respectively) provide empirical evidence to support their clinical practice. A single dose of paeoniflorin (150 mg/kg) alone and with sinomenine hydrochloride (90 mg/kg) was administered by gastric gavage to unrestrained conscious male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=6, 250-300 g). Blood samples were collected periodically via a jugular vein before and after dosing from 10 min to 12 h. A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay was developed to determine the plasma concentrations of paeoniflorin. Non-compartmental pharmacokinetic profiles were constructed by using the software PK Solutions 2.0. The pharmacokinetic parameters were compared using unpaired Student t-test. After co-administration of sinomenine, the peak plasma concentration of paeoniflorin was elevated (P<0.01), the peak time was delayed (P<0.01), the AUC(0-t) was increased (P<0.001), the mean residence time (MRT) was prolonged (P<0.01), the C(L) was decreased (P<0.01) and the V(d) was reduced (P<0.05). These results indicate that sinomenine hydrochloride at 90 mg/kg significantly improved the bioavailability of paeoniflorin in rats.] School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Kowloon, Hong Kong, PR China.

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Matthias de l’Obel (Lobelius) 1538-1616

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Luo H, Li X, Xiao F, Gu F. [Study on pharmacokinetics of ferulic acid and paeoniflorin in Angelic-Paeonia root powder] [Article in Chinese] Zhong Yao Cai. 2003 Mar;26(3):189-92. [ OBJECTIVE: To study pharmacokinetics of ferulic acid and paeoniflorin that are two chief active compounds in Angelic-Paeonia Root Powder (APRP). METHODS: After the mice were administered by APRP through ig, HPLC was used to determine ferulic acid and paeoniflorin concentration in serum at different times. 3P87 procedure was used to process concentration-time data. RESULTS: Ferulic acid and paeoniflorin were detected from serum in the mice. The pharmacokinetics parameters were: Ferulic acid: Ke = 0.330 +/- 0.085 1/h, Ka = 0.555 +/- 0.133 1/h, t1/2(ka) = 1.249 +/- 0.365 h, t1/2(ke) = 2.101 +/- 0.665 h, Tpeak = 2.606 +/- 0.586 h, Cmax = 6.372 +/- 1.510 mg.L-1, AUC = 41.399 +/- 11.763 mg.h-1.L-1; Paeoniflorin: Ke = 0.511 +/- 0.117 1/h, Ka = 0.656 +/- 0.121 1/h, t1/2(Ka) = 1.056 +/- 0.263 h, t1/2(Ke) = 1.356 +/- 0.281 h, Tpeak = 2.062 +/- 0.396 h, Cmax = 3.401 +/- 0.879 mg.L-1, AUC = 16.047 +/- 3.767 mg.L-1. The present research provided valuable data for rational clinical practice of APRP.] College of Pharmacy, Drug Research Center, College of Pharmacy, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632.

Luo Yi-Bo. Pei Yan-Long. Pan Kai-Yu. Hong De-Yuan, A Study on Pollination Biology of Paeonia suffruticosa subsp. spontanea (Paeoniaceae) Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica 1998...36...2.
local link to the english summary with faster fotos
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Carsten Burkhardt's Web Project Paeonia - The Peony Library

ano_finnland7 index 0602 boreas2

Paeonia-Literatur L